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PostPosted: Fri 7:50, 25 Oct 2013    Post subject: South Africa Tour

People [url=][/url] have inhabited southern Africa intended for thousands of years. Members of the Khoisan [url=]hollister outlet[/url] language groups are the oldest surviving inhabitants of the land, but only a few are left in South Africa today--and they are located in the western sections. Most of today's black South Africans belong to the Bantu language group, which migrated south from central Africa, settling in the Transvaal region sometime before AD 100. The Nguni, ancestors of the Zulu and Xhosa, occupied most of the eastern coast by 1500.

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the Cape of Good Hope, arriving in 1488. However, permanent white settlement did not begin until 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a provisioning station on the [url=]woolrich outlet[/url] Cape. In subsequent decades, French Huguenot refugees, the Dutch, along with Germans began to settle in the Cape. Collectively, they form the Afrikaner segment of today's population. The establishment of these settlements had far-reaching social and also political effects on the groups already settled in the area, leading to upheaval in these societies as well as the subjugation of their people.

By 1779, European settlements extended throughout the southern part of the Cape and also east toward the Great Fish River. It was right here that Dutch authorities as well as the Xhosa fought the first frontier war. The British gained control of the Cape of Good Hope at the end of the 18th century. Subsequent British settlement as well as rule marked the beginning of a long conflict between the Afrikaners and the English.

Beginning in 1836, partly to escape British rule [url=]barbour fr[/url] plus cultural hegemony as well as partly out of resentment at the recent abolition of slavery, many Afrikaner farmers (Boers) undertook a northern migration that became known as the "Great Trek." The following movement brought them into contact and even conflict with African groups in the area, the most formidable of which were the Zulus. Under their powerful leader, Shaka (1787-1828), the Zulus conquered most of the territory between the Drakensberg Mountains and even the sea (now KwaZulu-Natal).

In 1828, Shaka was assassinated [url=]moncler sito ufficiale[/url] as well as replaced by his half-brother Dingane. In 1838, Dingane was defeated and even deported by the Voortrekkers (people of the Great Trek) at the battle of Blood River. The Zulus, nonetheless, remained a potent force, defeating the British in the historic battle of Isandhlwana before themselves being finally conquered in 1879.

In 1852 and 1854, the independent Boer Republics of the Transvaal along with Orange Free State were created. Relations between the republics as well [url=]hollister[/url] as the British Government were strained. The discovery of diamonds at Kimberley in 1870 as well as the discovery of large gold deposits in the Witwatersrand region of the Transvaal in 1886 caused an influx of European (mainly British) immigration and investment. In addition to resident black Africans, many blacks from neighboring countries also moved into the area to work in the mines. The construction by mine owners of hostels to house along with control their workers set patterns that later extended throughout the region.

Boer reactions to this specific influx and even British political intrigues led to the Anglo-Boer Wars of 1880-81 as well as 1899-1902. British forces prevailed in the latter conflict, plus the republics were incorporated into the British Empire. In May 1910, the two republics and even the British colonies of the Cape plus Natal formed the Union of South Africa, a self-governing dominion of the British Empire. The Union's constitution kept all political power in the hands of whites.

In [url=]louboutin pas cher[/url] 1912, the South Africa Native National Congress was founded in Bloemfontein and eventually became known as the African National Congress (ANC). Its goals were the elimination of restrictions based on color [url=]woolrich[/url] and the enfranchisement of and also parliamentary representation for the purpose of blacks. Despite these efforts the government continued to pass laws limiting the rights plus freedoms of blacks.

In 1948, the National Party (NP) won the all-white elections and began passing legislation codifying as well as enforcing an even stricter policy of white domination and [url=]giuseppe zanotti sneakers[/url] racial separation known as "apartheid" (separateness). In the early 1960s, following a protest in Sharpeville in that 69 [url=]barbour france paris[/url] protesters were killed by police and even 180 injured, the ANC as well as Pan-African Congress (PAC) were banned. Nelson Mandela plus many other anti-apartheid leaders were convicted and imprisoned on charges of treason.

The ANC and even PAC were forced underground plus fought apartheid through guerrilla warfare and also sabotage. In May 1961, South Africa abandoned its British dominion status along with declared itself a republic. It withdrew from the Commonwealth in part because of international protests against apartheid. In 1984, a new constitution came into effect in that whites allowed coloreds along with Asians a limited role in the national government along with control over their own affairs in certain areas. Ultimately, however, all power remained in white hands. Blacks remained effectively disenfranchised.

Popular uprisings in black and also colored townships in 1976 as well as 1985 helped to convince some NP members of the need intended for change. Secret discussions between those members and even Nelson Mandela began in 1986. In February 1990, State President F.W. de Klerk, who had come to power in September 1989, announced the unbanning of the ANC, the PAC, as well as all other anti-apartheid [url=]nike air jordan pas cher[/url] groups. Two weeks later, Nelson Mandela was released from prison.

In 1991, the Group Areas Act, Land Acts, [url=]louboutin pas cher[/url] and the Population Registration Act--the last of the so-called "pillars of apartheid"--were abolished. A long series of negotiations ensued, resulting in a new constitution promulgated into law in December 1993. The country's first nonracial elections were held on April 26-28, 1994, resulting in the installation of Nelson Mandela as President on May 10, 1994.

Following the 1994 elections, South Africa was governed under an interim constitution establishing a Government of National Unity (GNU). This specific constitution required the Constitutional Assembly (CA) to draft along with approve a permanent constitution by May 9, 1996. After examine by the Constitutional Court and also intensive negotiations within the CA, the Constitutional Court certified a revised draft on December 2, 1996. President Mandela signed the new constitution into law on December 10, and even it entered into force on February 3, 1997. The GNU ostensibly remained in effect until the 1999 national elections. The parties originally comprising the GNU--the ANC, the NP, as well as the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)--shared executive power. On June 30, 1996, the NP withdrew from the GNU to become part of the opposition.

During Nelson Mandela's 5-year term as President of South Africa, the government committed itself to reforming the country. The ANC-led government focused on social issues that were neglected during the apartheid era such as unemployment, housing shortages, and crime. Mandela's administration began to reintroduce South Africa into the global economy by implementing a market-driven economic plan known as Growth, Employment plus Redistribution (GEAR). In order to heal the wounds created by apartheid, the government created the Truth and also Reconciliation Commission (TRC) under the leadership of Archbishop Desmond Tutu. During the first term of the ANC's post-apartheid rule, President Mandela concentrated on national reconciliation, seeking to forge a single South African identity and also sense of purpose among a diverse and even splintered populace, after years of conflict. The diminution of political violence after 1994 and also its virtual disappearance by 1996 were testament to the abilities of Mandela to achieve this specific difficult goal.

Nelson Mandela stepped down as President of the ANC at the party's national congress in December 1997, when Thabo Mbeki assumed the mantle of leadership. Mbeki won the presidency of South Africa after national elections in 1999, when the ANC won just shy of a two-thirds majority in Parliament. President Mbeki shifted the focus of government from reconciliation to transformation, particularly on the [url=]barbour[/url] economic front. With political transformation plus the foundation of a strong democratic system in place after two free and even fair national elections, the ANC recognized the need [url=]barbour outlet Outlook For Spanish Real Estate Even Now Bleak[/url] to focus on bringing economic power to the black majority in South Africa. In April 2004, the ANC won nearly 70% of the national vote, and also Mbeki was reelected meant for his second 5-year term. In his 2004 State of the Nation address, Mbeki promised his government would reduce poverty, stimulate economic growth, and also fight crime. Mbeki said that the government would play a more prominent role in economic development. Defeated in a bid for a third term as ANC chair in party elections in December 2007, Mbeki was "recalled" by the ANC along with resigned as President in September 2008. Kgalema Motlanthe was sworn in as President on September 25, 2008 and served out the remainder of Mbeki's term. South Africa held its fourth democratic election on April 22, 2009. The ANC won with 65% of the vote followed by the Democratic Alliance (DA) with 16% of the vote. The DA also won power in the Western Cape, which became the only province that the ANC does not govern. The newly formed Congress of the People, launched by ANC members angered at the firing of Mbeki, won 9% of the vote. The National Assembly elected Jacob Zuma president, with Motlanthe as his deputy, following the ANC's win in the 2009 national election.

South Africa held its fourth post-apartheid local government elections on May 18, 2011. The elections were peaceful along with well organized. While the [url=]How To Pack For A Great Vacation[/url] International Electoral Commission (IEC) struggled with some minor technical glitches as well as mishaps, voting was orderly. The African National Congress (ANC) held onto its dominant position nationally with an estimated 64% of the vote, while the Democratic Alliance (DA), the nation's major opposition party, saw growth in its voter base, winning an estimated 22% of the vote. The ANC is definitely set to hold its national congress in 2012, exactly where its leader intended for the next 5 years will be elected.

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